Abstract：Currently, the state is attaching increasing importance to farmers' reading, but the farmers are seriously restricted in their reading due to their low incomes, poor education, lack of rural publications, short of highquality reading materials, etc. Media ecology is a science that aims to explore and reveal the relationship among four entities, the human being, the media, the society and the nature, as well as their nature and law of development and change by means of ecological viewpoints and methods. Using the science of media ecology to analyze farmers’ reading problems could help to establish a whole and systematic cognitive concept, and, based on the three fundamental elements of readers, producers and guarantors, for analyzing the problems and causes to the problems in the rural reading ecology in China in the rural reading ecosystem. At the same time, the analysis of the trend of rural ecological changes shows that the demand for information in the rural society will continue to be stimulated; the intervention of scientific and technological factors will promote farmers’reading; policy guarantee will continuously strengthen the stability of the ecosystem; and such problems as information pollution and information governance will become increasingly prominent in the rural society. Therefore, from the perspective of ecological governance improvement, in order to encourage farmers to read, it is necessary to seize the fundamental ecological management, establish an urban and rural education integration system, return to original ecological functions, establish and improve the rural publication regulatory mechanism mainly with market supplies coupled with policy supports, bring into new ecological factors’role of intervention, actively promote digital reading, and build ecommerce platforms in rural areas.